## How To Add Page Numbers to PDF Online?

## Easy-to-use PDF software

## Which are the most commonly used functions in R?

Most Common may be str Here is bigger list … General builtins # List all built-in functions options # Set options to control how R computes & displays results ?NA # Help page on handling of missing data valuesabs(x) # The absolute value of "x"append # Add elements to a vectorc(x) # A generic function which combines its arguments cat(x) # Prints the arguments cbind # Combine vectors by row/column (cf. "paste" in Unix) diff(x) # Returns suitably lagged and iterated differencesgl # Generate factors with the pattern of their levelsgrep # Pattern matching identical # Test if 2 objects are *exactly* equaljitter # Add a small amount of noise to a numeric vectorjulian # Return Julian datelength(x) # Return no. of elements in vector xls # List objects in current environmentmat.or.vec # Create a matrix or vectorpaste(x) # Concatenate vectors after converting to characterrange(x) # Returns the minimum and maximum of xrep(1,5) # Repeat the number 1 five timesrev(x) # List the elements of "x" in reverse orderseq(1,10,0.4) # Generate a sequence (1 -> 10, spaced by 0.4)sequence # Create a vector of sequencessign(x) # Returns the signs of the elements of xsort(x) # Sort the vector xorder(x) # list sorted element numbers of xtolower ,toupper # Convert string to lower/upper case lettersunique(x) # Remove duplicate entries from vectorsystem("cmd") # Execute "cmd" in operating system (outside of R)vector # Produces a vector of given length and modeformatC(x) # Format x using 'C' style formatting specificationsfloor(x), ceiling(x), round(x), signif(x), trunc(x) # rounding functionsSys.getenv(x) # Get the value of the environment variable "x"Sys.putenv(x) # Set the value of the environment variable "x"Sys.time # Return system timeSys.Date # Return system dategetwd # Return working directorysetwd # Set working directory?files # Help on low-level interface to file systemlist.files # List files in a give http.//directoryfile.info # Get information about files# Built-in constants.pi,letters,LETTERS # Pi, lower & uppercase letters, e.g. letters[7] = "g"month.abb,http.//month.name # Abbreviated & full names for months Maths log(x),logb ,log10 ,log2 ,exp ,expm1 ,log1p ,sqrt # Fairly obviouscos ,sin ,tan ,acos ,asin ,atan ,atan2 # Usual stuffcosh ,sinh ,tanh ,acosh ,asinh ,atanh # Hyperbolic functionsunion ,intersect ,setdiff ,setequal # Set operations+,-,*,/,^,%%,%/% # Arithmetic operators<,>,<=,>=,==,!= # Comparison operatorseigen # Computes eigenvalues and eigenvectorsderiv # Symbolic and algorithmic derivatives of simple expressionsintegrate # Adaptive quadrature over a finite or infinite interval.sqrt ,sum ?Control # Help on control flow statements (e.g. if, for, while)?Extract # Help on operators acting to extract or replace subsets of vectors?Logic # Help on logical operators?Mod # Help on functions which support complex arithmetic in R?Paren # Help on parentheses?regex # Help on regular expressions used in R?Syntax # Help on R syntax and giving the precedence of operators?Special # Help on special functions related to beta and gamma functions Graphical help(package=graphics) # List all graphics functionsplot # Generic function for plotting of R objectspar # Set or query graphical parameterscurve(5*x^3,add=T) # Plot an equation as a curvepoints(x,y) # Add another set of points to an existing grapharrows # Draw arrows [see errorbar script]abline # Adds a straight line to an existing graphlines # Join specified points with line segmentssegments # Draw line segments between pairs of pointshist(x) # Plot a histogram of xpairs # Plot matrix of scatter plotsmatplot # Plot columns of matrices?device # Help page on available graphical devicespostscript # Plot to postscript filepdf # Plot to pdf filepng # Plot to PNG filejpeg # Plot to JPEG fileX11 # Plot to X windowpersp # Draws perspective plotcontour # Contour plotimage # Plot an image Fitting / regression / optimisation lm # Fit liner model glm # Fit generalised linear model nls # non-linear (weighted) least-squares fitting lqs # "library(MASS)" resistant regression optim # general-purpose optimisation optimize # 1-dimensional optimisation constrOptim # Constrained optimisation nlm # Non-linear minimisation nlminb # More robust (non-)constrained non-linear minimisation Statistical help(package=stats) # List all stats functions?Chisquare # Help on chi-squared distribution functions?Poisson # Help on Poisson distribution functionshelp(package=survival) # Survival analysiscor.test # Perform correlation testcumsum ; cumprod ; cummin ; cummax # Cumuluative functions for vectorsdensity(x) # Compute kernel density estimatesks.test # Performs one or two sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov testsloess , lowess # Scatter plot smoothingmad # Calculate median absolute deviationmean(x), weighted.mean(x), median(x), min(x), max(x), quantile(x)rnorm , runif # Generate random data with Gaussian/uniform distributionsplinefun # Perform spline interpolationsmooth.spline # Fits a cubic smoothing splinesd # Calculate standard deviationsummary(x) # Returns a summary of x. mean, min, max etc.t.test # Student's t-testvar # Calculate variancesample # Random samples & permutationsecdf # Empirical Cumulative Distribution Functionqqplot # quantile-quantile plot